Eagle, M. (1959). The effects of subliminal stimuli of aggressive content upon conscious cognition. Journal of Personality, 27, pp 578-600.
Eagle, M. (1962). Personality correlates of sensitivity to subliminal stimulation. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 134 (1).
Efran, J.S. & Marcia, J.E. (1967). Treatment of fears by expectancy manipulation: An exploratory investigation. Proceedings of the 75th annual convention of the American Psychological Association, 2, pp 239-240.
Efran and Marcia devised a treatment for snake and spider phobics.
This treatment is similar to systematic desensitization except that it does not use the pairing of relaxation and anxiety hierarchy images.
The treatment consisted of looking into a blank tachistoscope. Occasional shocks were administered and the subjects were told that this was an automatic reactions to the "subliminal" phobic stimuli which were being extinguished.
The test was administered to two groups of subjects under high and low expectancy conditions.
The results indicated that this treatment had it's greatest effect under high-expectancy conditions.
Ellis, H.D. (1972). Adaptation-level theory and context effects on sensory judgments: perception for response? Perception, 1 (1), pp 101-109. ISSN: 0301-0066.
Findings of covert recognition are compared with subliminal stimuli.
Emas, S. W. (1989). Effects of subliminal psychodynamic activation messages upon state anxiety of males and females, U Missouri, Kansas City, US.
Emmelkamp, P.M. & Straatman, H. (1976). A psychoanalytic reinterpretation of the effectiveness of systematic desensitization: Fact or fiction? Behavior Research & Therapy, 14 (3), pp 245-249.
The aim of this study was to replicate and extend the work of L.H. Silverman.
Silverman stated that the effectiveness of systematic desensitization (SD) resides in its activation of unconscious merging fantasies.
In Silverman's experiments, a procedure aimed at stimulating a fantasy of "merging with mother" was substituted for muscle relaxation.
The subjects underwent tachistoscopic subliminal exposure of the symbiotic gratification stimulus "Mommy and I are one" (experimental) or the neutral stimulus "people are walking" (control).
Emmelkamp and Straatman replicated this study with special reference to demand characteristics.
Snake-phobic subjects were used.
It was found that the systematic desensitization with a symbiotic gratification stimulus was not more effective than systematic desensitization with a neutral stimulus.
This may be explained by the fact that the neutral stimulus in the present study "snake and I are one" was more relevant than the neutral stimulus in the Silverman et al study.
In addition, it was found that the subjects with a therapy-set improved significantly more than subjects with a research-set.
Emrich, H. & Heineman, L.G. (1966). EEG in subliminal perception of emotionally important words. Psychology Forsch, 29 (4), pp 285-296. ISSN: 0033-3026, Language: GERMAN.
Emrich and Heineman used an EEG as measurement of the effects of the subliminal presentation of emotionally important words.
Erdelyi, M.H. (1972). Role of fantasy in the Poetzl (emergence) phenomenon. Douglass College, Rutgers State University. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 24 (2), pp 186-190.
Matthew Erdelyi compared the relative effectiveness of doodles and pictorial
guesses in recovering initially unreported elements of a brief stimulus.
Subjects were randomly assigned to fantasy, guessing or yoked groups.
The fantasy and guessing subjects saw a brief (500 msec.) composite stimulus which they then attempted to recall.
The fantasy subjects subsequently generated 20 unrepeating pictorial fantasies, while the guessing subjects produced 20 "shrewd guesses" of the unrecalled stimulus elements.
The yoked group never saw the stimulus, instead each subject saw and copied the free recall drawings of a fantasy subject and then generated 20 guesses of the unrecalled elements.
The guessing subjects recovered significantly more stimulus items in their 20 responses than the fantasy subjects, while the yoked subjects responses were significantly less accurate than their fantasy counterparts. Fantasy in the confirmed Poetzl phenomenon was interpreted as functioning much like subcriterion responses emitted in forced-recall guessing.
Erdelyi, M.H. (1974). A new look at the new look: Perceptual defense and vigilance. Psychological Review, 81 (1), pp 1-25.
Erdelyi, M.H. (1985). Psychoanalysis: Freud's Cognitive Psychology. W.H. Freeman and Company. New York.
In this book, Erdelyi discusses experiments in which subjects recalled the contents of subliminally induced messages through free association and daydreams.
Erdley, C. A. and P. R. D'Agostino (1988). "Cognitive and affective components of automatic priming effects." Journal of Personality & Social Psychology 54(5): 741-747.
The authors of this study suggest that their fails to show a general affective response to priming effects.
Erikson, C.W. (1958). Unconscious processes. In M.R. Jones (Ed.) Nebraska Symposia on Motivation. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, NE.
Erikson, C.W. & Johnson, H.J. (1964). Storage and decay characteristics of nonattended auditory stimuli. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 68 (1), pp 28-36.